# COMPUTER GRAPHICS AND VIRTUAL REALITY SYSTEMS SYLLABUS

**COMPUTER GRAPHICS AND VIRTUAL REALITY SYSTEMS****1. Introduction to Computer graphics and Image Analysis**

Introduction, Image and Object, Image Representation, The basic graphics pipeline,

Bitmap vs Vector based Graphics, Applications of Computer Graphics, Various

Display Devices and Input Technology Overview of Coordinate System. Scan

Conversion algorithm: Scan Conversion of a point, Scan conversion of lines, Digital

differential analyzer algorithm, Bresenhams line drawing algorithm

**2. Two and Three Dimensional Transformations**

Introduction, Transformation Matrix, Types of transformation, Translation, Rotation,

Scaling, Reflection, Shear, Composite transformations, and Transformation function.

**3. Viewing and Clipping**

Introduction ,Viewing transformation in two-dimensions, Introduction to clipping, 2D

clipping, Point clipping, Line clipping, Cohen Sutherland line clipping, Midpoint

subdivision algorithm, Cyrus Beck line clipping, Liang Barsky line clipping,

Introduction to Polygon clipping, Sutherland Hodgeman polygon clipping, Weller

Atherton algorithm, Viewing and clipping in 3D,Viewing transformation, Text

clipping, Projection, Parallel projection, Orthographic projection, Oblique projection,

Perspective projection ,One point perspective, Two point perspective, Three point

perspective.

**4. Solid Area Scan Conversion**

Introduction, Inside Outside test, Winding number method, Coherence, Polygon

filling, Seed fill algorithm, Boundary fill algorithm, Flood fill algorithm, Scan line

algorithm, Priority algorithm, Scan conversion of characters, Anti aliasing, Types of

anti aliasing, Haftoning, thresholding and dithering

**5. Curve Design :**

Introduction, Curve continuity, Conic curves, Piecewise curve design, LeGrange

interpolated curves, Spline curve representation, Bezier Curves, B Spline Curves,

Non Uniform Rational B Spline curves, Introduction to fractal and introduction color

models. 6. Computer Animation

Introduction, Key Frame Animation, Construction of an animation sequence, Motion

control methods, Methods based on geometric and kinematics information, Methods

based on physical information, Methods based on Behavioral Information, Procedural

Animation, Introduction to Morphing, Intermediate Images, Mapping orders,

Warping techniques, Mesh warping, Feature based image warping, Thin plate Spline,

TPS based image warping, 3D morphing.

**7. Introduction to Virtual Reality**

A short history of early virtual reality, early commercial VR Technology, The five

classical components of VR Systems, Design of Virtual reality systems, Important

factors in VR systems, Types of VR systems, Advantages of virtual reality .

**8. Input and Output Devices**

Three Dimensional Position Trackers, Navigation and Manipulation Interfaces,

Gesture Interfaces, Graphical Display, Sound displays, and Haptic Feedback.

**9. Computing Architectures for Virtual Reality**

The Rendering Pipeline: The graphical rendering pipeline, The haptics rendering

pipeline, PC Graphics Architectures: Pc Graphics Accelerators, Graphics

Benchmarks, Work Station Based Architectures: the Sun Blade 1000 Architecture,

the SGI Infinite Reality Architecture, Distributed VR Architectures: Multipipeline

Synchronization, Collocated rendering Pipelines, Distributed Virtual Environments.

**10. Modeling**

Geometric Modeling: Virtual Object Shape, Object Visual Appearance.

Kinematics Modeling: Homogeneous Transformation Matrices, Object Position,

Transformation Invariants, Object Hierarchies, viewing the three dimensional words.

Physical Modeling: Collision Detection, Surface Deformation, Force Computation,

Force Smoothing and Mapping, Haptic Texturing.

Behavior Modeling and Model Management: Level of Detail Management, Cell

Segmentation.

**11. Virtual Reality Programming**

Toolkits and Scene Graphs.World Toolkit: Model Geometry and Appearance, the

WTK Scene Graph, Sensors and Action Functions, WTK Networking,

JAVA 3D: Model Geometry and Appearance, Java 3D Scene graph, Sensors and

Behaviors, Java 3D Networking, WTK and Java 3D Performance Comparison.

General Haptics Open Software Toolkit: GHOST Integration with the Graphics

Pipeline, The GHOST Haptic Scene Graph, Collision Detection and response,

Graphics and PHANToM Calibration.

**12. Application areas of Virtual Reality**

Medical, Education, Arts and Entertainment, Military, Manufacturing, Robotics,

Information Visualization.

**Text Books**

1.

**R. K Maurya, “Computer Graphics”, Wiley India.**

2.

**Donal Hearn and M. Pauline Baker, “Computer Graphics”, Pearson Education.**

3. Newman and Sproll, “Principles of Interactive Computer Graphics”, McGraw Hill.

4. Harrington, “Computer Graphics”, McGraw Hill.

5. Rogers, “Procedural Elements of Computer Graphics”, Tata McGraw Hill.

6. Vince, “Virtual Reality Systems”, Pearson Education.

7.

**Grigore Burdea, Philippe Coiffet, “Virtual Reality Technology”, 2nd**

edition. Wiley.

edition. Wiley.