COMPUTER GRAPHICS AND VIRTUAL REALITY SYSTEMS
1. Introduction to Computer graphics and Image Analysis Introduction, Image and Object, Image Representation, The basic graphics pipeline, Bitmap vs Vector based Graphics, Applications of Computer Graphics, Various Display Devices and Input Technology Overview of Coordinate System. Scan Conversion algorithm: Scan Conversion of a point, Scan conversion of lines, Digital differential analyzer algorithm, Bresenhams line drawing algorithm
2. Two and Three Dimensional Transformations
Introduction, Transformation Matrix, Types of transformation, Translation, Rotation,
Scaling, Reflection, Shear, Composite transformations, and Transformation function.
3. Viewing and Clipping
Introduction ,Viewing transformation in two-dimensions, Introduction to clipping, 2D
clipping, Point clipping, Line clipping, Cohen Sutherland line clipping, Midpoint
subdivision algorithm, Cyrus Beck line clipping, Liang Barsky line clipping,
Introduction to Polygon clipping, Sutherland Hodgeman polygon clipping, Weller
Atherton algorithm, Viewing and clipping in 3D,Viewing transformation, Text
clipping, Projection, Parallel projection, Orthographic projection, Oblique projection,
Perspective projection ,One point perspective, Two point perspective, Three point
4. Solid Area Scan Conversion
Introduction, Inside Outside test, Winding number method, Coherence, Polygon
filling, Seed fill algorithm, Boundary fill algorithm, Flood fill algorithm, Scan line
algorithm, Priority algorithm, Scan conversion of characters, Anti aliasing, Types of
anti aliasing, Haftoning, thresholding and dithering
5. Curve Design :
Introduction, Curve continuity, Conic curves, Piecewise curve design, LeGrange
interpolated curves, Spline curve representation, Bezier Curves, B Spline Curves,
Non Uniform Rational B Spline curves, Introduction to fractal and introduction color
models. 6. Computer Animation
Introduction, Key Frame Animation, Construction of an animation sequence, Motion
control methods, Methods based on geometric and kinematics information, Methods
based on physical information, Methods based on Behavioral Information, Procedural
Animation, Introduction to Morphing, Intermediate Images, Mapping orders,
Warping techniques, Mesh warping, Feature based image warping, Thin plate Spline,
TPS based image warping, 3D morphing.
7. Introduction to Virtual Reality
A short history of early virtual reality, early commercial VR Technology, The five
classical components of VR Systems, Design of Virtual reality systems, Important
factors in VR systems, Types of VR systems, Advantages of virtual reality .
8. Input and Output Devices
Three Dimensional Position Trackers, Navigation and Manipulation Interfaces,
Gesture Interfaces, Graphical Display, Sound displays, and Haptic Feedback.
9. Computing Architectures for Virtual Reality
The Rendering Pipeline: The graphical rendering pipeline, The haptics rendering
pipeline, PC Graphics Architectures: Pc Graphics Accelerators, Graphics
Benchmarks, Work Station Based Architectures: the Sun Blade 1000 Architecture,
the SGI Infinite Reality Architecture, Distributed VR Architectures: Multipipeline
Synchronization, Collocated rendering Pipelines, Distributed Virtual Environments.
Geometric Modeling: Virtual Object Shape, Object Visual Appearance.
Kinematics Modeling: Homogeneous Transformation Matrices, Object Position,
Transformation Invariants, Object Hierarchies, viewing the three dimensional words.
Physical Modeling: Collision Detection, Surface Deformation, Force Computation,
Force Smoothing and Mapping, Haptic Texturing.
Behavior Modeling and Model Management: Level of Detail Management, Cell
11. Virtual Reality Programming
Toolkits and Scene Graphs.World Toolkit: Model Geometry and Appearance, the
WTK Scene Graph, Sensors and Action Functions, WTK Networking,
JAVA 3D: Model Geometry and Appearance, Java 3D Scene graph, Sensors and
Behaviors, Java 3D Networking, WTK and Java 3D Performance Comparison.
General Haptics Open Software Toolkit: GHOST Integration with the Graphics
Pipeline, The GHOST Haptic Scene Graph, Collision Detection and response,
Graphics and PHANToM Calibration.
12. Application areas of Virtual Reality
Medical, Education, Arts and Entertainment, Military, Manufacturing, Robotics,
1. R. K Maurya, “Computer Graphics”, Wiley India.
2. Donal Hearn and M. Pauline Baker, “Computer Graphics”, Pearson Education.
3. Newman and Sproll, “Principles of Interactive Computer Graphics”, McGraw Hill.
4. Harrington, “Computer Graphics”, McGraw Hill.
5. Rogers, “Procedural Elements of Computer Graphics”, Tata McGraw Hill.
6. Vince, “Virtual Reality Systems”, Pearson Education.
7. Grigore Burdea, Philippe Coiffet, “Virtual Reality Technology”, 2nd